Few objects are so generally identified with African art as the Bamana "antelope" crest mask. It is actually a complex object, with tremendous variations in style and technique. These differences are usually attributed to the regional styles set forth in 1960 by Robert Goldwater, whose work relied on museum-based research and the 1934-35 field data of F. H. Lem.
This mask exemplifies a style of carving that uses a vertical one-piece format that emphasizes the neck and mane. It is distinguished by the deep inside curve of the throat, the dividing of the neck into openwork and triangular elements, the two notched forms articulating the mane, and the curved, unadorned tail. Other traits--the straight vertical horns, bending backward at the tip, covered with spiral incised decoration on the shaft; the elongated face and nose with parallel lines carved from the forehead band to the mouth; the bands of triangular impressed patterns obscured by a thick patina--are shared with groupings such as the Master of the Flying Mane.
Despite disparate forms, "antelope" crest masks share the same symbolism. Most African artists use depictions of animals to convey lessons. An appropriate animal is selected according to well-known distinctive physical or behavioral traits. The physical features of different animals are often combined to create mythical creatures whose symbolic powers are greater than ordinary beasts. These crest masks combine the horns of a large antelope; the body of an aardvark with its big ears, short legs and thick tail; and the textured skin and curling ability of the pangolin--all animals who dig up the earth. This makes them fitting representations of Chi Wara, the supernatural being who the Bamana traditionally believed taught people to farm. Earrings, of red fiber or cowrie shell, reinforce the idea that these are not ordinary animals.
Young men once wore male and female pairs of masks in a dance performance that taught, praised and encouraged good farmers. Ceremonies were held in the fields. Today, because of conversion to Islam and modern changes in employment and school attendance, the masquerade has become more a popular entertainment and less a performance associated with a men's initiation society. Many replicas of the mask can be found for sale in urban markets; it is even copied in other parts of Africa for the export trade.
Male antelope crest mask on rectangular base with openwork neck and mane formed by projecting notched forms, two vertical horns with backward curving tips and two upward projecting ears with cowrie shell pendant earrings. Mask has a round metal disk on the head under the horns and a thick upward curving tail with attachment repair with iron staple. Neck and face have fine, incised geometric designs, obscured by surface patina.
J.J. Klejman, New York
Eliot Elisofon, New York, before 1957 to 1973
African Mosaic: Selections from the Permanent Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., November 19, 2013-ongoing (installed July 17, 2014)
African Cosmos: Stellar Arts, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., June 20-December 9, 2012; Newark Museum, February 26-August 11, 2013; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, August 23-November 30, 2014; Michael C. Carlos Museum at Emory University, Atlanta, January 31-June 21, 2015 (exhibited at NMAfA)
Artful Animals, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., July 1, 2009-July 25, 2010
From Baga to Yoruba: Treasures of African Art, Saginaw Art Museum, Saginaw, Michigan, November 5, 2006-January 28, 2007
Genesis: Ideas of Origin in African Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, November 19, 2002-July 4, 2003
Celebration: A World of Art and Ritual, Renwick Gallery, Washington D.C., March 17, 1982-July 10, 1983
African Art in Washington Collections, Museum of African Art, Washington, D.C., May 25, 1972-January 1, 1973
The Language of African Art, Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution Fine Arts & Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C., May 24-September 7, 1970, no. 20
The African Image: A New Selection of Tribal Art, The Toledo Museum of Art, February 1-22, 1956, no. 22
Freyer, Bryna. 2009. Artful Animals Activity Guide. Exhibition booklet. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Goldwater, Robert. 1960. Bambara Sculpture of the Western Sudan. New York: Museum of Primitive Art, no. 50.
Goodman, Elaine Sooy. 2009. "Warren M. Robbins and the Founding of the National Museum of African Art." Tribal Art XIII:2 (51), p. 92, no. 14.
Kreamer, Christine Mullen. 2012. African Cosmos: Stellar Arts. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution; New York: Monacelli Press, p. 125, no. 7.15.
LaGamma, Alisa. 2002. Genesis: Ideas of Origin in African Sculpture. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, p. 83, no. 37.
Museum of African Art. 1970. The Language of African Art, A Guest Exhibition of the Museum of African Art at the Smithsonian Institution Fine Arts & Portrait Gallery Building. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, no. 23.
Museum of African Art. 1972. African Art in Washington Collections: A Loan Exhibition at the Museum of African Art. Washington, D.C.: Museum of African Art, no. 19.
National Museum of African Art. 1999. Selected Works from the Collection of the National Museum of African Art. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, pp. 20-21, no. 5B.
Park, Edwards. 1983. Treasures of the Smithsonian. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books, p. 373.
Plass, Margaret. 1959. The African Image: A New Selection of Tribal Art. Toledo: The Toledo Museum of Art, no. 22.
Robbins, Warren. 1966. African Art in American Collections. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, pp. 44-45, nos. 7, 7a.
Smithsonian Institution. Office of Folklife Programs and Renwick Gallery of the National Museum of American Art. 1982. Celebration: A World of Art and Ritual. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, p. 183, no. 229, illustrated p. 182.
Zahan, Domique. 1980. Antilopes du Soleil, Arts et Rites Agraires d'Afrique Noire. Vienna: A.Schendl, pl. 26, no. IM 75.
Used as museum's logo, Smithsonian Institution flag