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Crown  (ade)
Date: ca. 1930
Medium: Glass beads, plant fiber, cotton, iron
Dimensions: H x W: 76.2 x 33 cm (30 x 13 in.)
Credit Line: Gift of Milton F. and Frieda Rosenthal
Geography: Ijebu region, Nigeria
Object Number: 94-1-1
Search Terms:
Ancestral
Male use
bird
Leadership
Exhibited: Visionary: Viewpoints on Africa's Arts

A beaded cone-shaped crown with a long fringe of beads that covers the wearer's face is the most important symbol of Yoruba kingship. Beaded crowns signify that the king-wearer can trace his ancestry to Odudua, the mythical founder of the sixteen original Yoruba kingdoms. This crown, formed by starched cotton placed over a basketry structure, is decorated with beaded faces, birds and geometric patterns. The faces represent local kings, past and present. The gathering of birds refers both to rituals that make the king semidivine and to the concealed forces that enable him to control and mediate the human and supernatural realms. Interlace patterns called salubata are associated with royalty or leadership. Their meaning is debatable, although the pattern may depict intertwining snakes, symbols of continuity. The veil protects the king's subjects from the supernatural powers radiating from his face. According to the crown makers of Efon-Alaiye, the earliest crowns were decorated with beads of one color. No examples survive of the first crowns, made with blue segi (Aggrey beads). The next crowns were decorated with red coral beads, which the Portuguese introduced in the late 15th century. Such crowns are rare. Crowns are now decorated with brilliantly colored glass beads, which have been imported from Europe probably since the mid-17th century. A Yoruba king might have several different beaded crowns and caps to wear for particular occasions. Like human beings, each ritual crown has its own oriki (chanted attributes or oral history).

Conical beaded crown with netted bead veil, strands of beads and straps with beaded birds. The crown is decorated with two frontal faces, interlace panels and seperately constructed three-dimensional birds.

Milton F. and Frieda Rosenthal, Westchester, New York, ca. 1989 to 1994


Visionary: Viewpoints on Africa's Arts, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., November 4, 2017-ongoing



African Beaded Art: Power and Adornment, Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, February 1-June 15, 2008



Beaded Splendor, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., June-October 9, 1994



Geary, Christraud and Andrea Nicolls. 1994. Beaded Splendor. Exhibition booklet. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, no. 11.



Lawal, Babatunde. 2012. Visions of Africa: Yoruba. Milan: 5 Continents Editions, pp. 116, 136, no. 50.



Kreamer, Christine Mullen. 2003. " A Tribute to Roy Sieber: Part 2." African Arts 36 (2), p. 24, no. 28.



Mellor, Stephen P. 2004. "The Exhibition and Conservation of African Objects: Considering the Nontangible." Art Tribal 7, p. 108, no. 2.



National Museum of African Art, 1987-1997: Celebrating 10 Years on the Mall. 1997. Museum brochure. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, no. 1994.



Pemberton III, John. 2008. African Beaded Art: Power and Adornment. Northampton: Smith College Museum of Art, pp. 56-57, no. 17.


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